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Abstrak Julisa Bulan Oktober 2011

1. Suzanna Muhammad                                              LITERATURE LEARNING



Suzanna Muhammad

Department of English Language and Literature Studies,

School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia,

Penang, Malaysia


The learning of literature receives less favorable reaction resulting to small number of students  interested to the subject. Till current time, literature remains as an elective subject, not celebrated as science subjects like medical, dentistry, pharmacy, management, and others. Literature is treated to be a minor subject to be explored. Different from the Western world, the learning of literature begins early during the primary level by teaching students about humanistic, moral and aesthetic values presented in the literary genre. This paper explores current trend of learning literature at tertiary level. The discussion shares teaching experiences, supervising postgraduate and conducting research in student’s interest in studying literature. And the focus goes to the learning of literature through postcolonial perspectives. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature is the leading critical overview of and historical introduction to colonial and postcolonial literary studies.



Keywords: Post-colonialism, feminism, postcolonial feminism, patriarchy dominance, subaltern.


2. Jumino Suhadi





Jumino Suhadi

Department of English Literature, Faculty of Literature

Islamic University of North Sumatra

Medan, Indonesia



Epistemic modality refers to the use of modality which is based on the speaker’s evaluation and judgment in relation to the degree of confidence of the knowledge on the proposition. It functions to comment on and evaluate an interpretation of reality in carrying out speech functions. Deontic modality indicates whether the proposition expressed by a command is obligatory, advisable or permissible according to some normative background such as law, morality, convention, etc. In many instances, the meanings of both types of modality are relative and complements to each other.  The evidence of some extrinsic modalities such as must, should, may, and can indicates that they may fall under both types; thus, they are like two sides of a coin which carry its value from the meaning conveyed by each side.


Keywords:  Systemic Functional Linguistics, epistemic modality, deontic modality, extrinsic modality, intrinsic modality, subjective modality, objective modality


3. Azmir Pasaribu




Azmir Pasaribu

Department of English Literature, Faculty of Literature

Islamic University of North Sumatra

Medan, Indonesia




This paper is a descriptive survey on the theme of the novel “Oliver Twist” written by Charles Dickens. The analysis focuses on the characters and settings in the novel which reveal the Victorian age social stratification. The setting begins in the parochial world which is divided into three parts; the workhouse, the tradesmen, and the poor. Then, the setting continues to the criminal world and the last is the world of the Victorian middle-class. Based on some theories, there are four divisions of social stratification of the Victorian Age. The findings show that the four social stratification of the Victorian Age mentioned above are found in the novel. The first is the Middle-class which is presented by Mr. Brownlow and his friends. The setting and their behaviour toward others also portray the condition of the middle class social stratification. The second is the Lower Middle-class which is represented by the tradesmen family. The third is the Lower Class which is represented by the staff of the workhouse. The last is the Under Class which is presented by The Lord of Underworld, Fagin, and the gang of thieves.



Keywords: Social stratification, setting, character, middle class, lower middle class, lower class, under class.


 4. Asnani





Department of English Literature, Faculty of Literature,

Islamic University of North Sumatra

Medan, Indonesia



This paper discusses about the psychology of gender depicted in the novel “Gone with the Wind” written by Margaret Mitchell.  The discussion is oriented at the aspects of psychology referring to awareness and reaction to biological sex which form social relationships based on perceived differences between the sexes and the genders such as gender ideology, gender role, gender identity, and gender inequality. The analysis focuses on what and how the embodiment of gender by the heroine of the novel named Scarlett O’Hara who has made the reader uncomfortable because she exposes the underside of gender myths while embodying basic American values and her ambiguous gender identity. The exact point is the relation of sex and gender which are both referenced and then violated.


Keywords: Gender psychology, gender ideology, gender role, gender identity, gender inequality.


5. Safitri Hariani



Safitri Hariani

Department of English Literature, Faculty of literature

Islamic University of North Sumatra

Medan, Indonesia



This paper presents a description of how grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion are used in literature. It is the result of a stylistic study in the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics. Cohesion in poetry reveals the feelings of the poet, cohesion in drama helps the audience to understand the dramatized situation, and cohesion in short story helps the reader understand the flow of the story conveyed by the author. The readers of fiction cannot expect the authors to provide all the information needed to understand the story directly and clearly. It often happens that the authors make subtle references to it in the text and the readers have to find words and phrases that signal information; that is, the readers are required to gather essential information in understanding the story from key words/phrases in the text. And in understanding the story more accurately, the readers must pay attention to the cohesive devices used. Thus, the knowledge of cohesion helps the reader of literary works enjoy and interpret literature more comprehensively.  



Keywords:    Systemic Functional Linguistics, textual function, grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion, reference, repetition.


6. Budi Syahputra




Budi Syahputra

Akademi Maritim Indonesia

Medan, Indonesia.



This article is concerned with the study of the novel “Heart of Darkness” written by Joseph Conrad. The analysis focuses on the main theme, that is hypocrisy of imperialism. In this novel Conrad contradicts the common belief that imperialism is regarded as a glorious and worthy enterprise. He portrays how the Europeans are hypocrites for they claim to be going on a colonial journey to bring enlightenment to the ignorant, yet their sole purpose is greed. The hypocrisy of imperialism is not only seen through the exploitation of the native Africans and the wilderness but also in the behaviour of the prominent characters such as Kurtz, The Manager, The Brick-maker and the Pilgrims. Imperialism is nevertheless at the centre of “Heart of Darkness”. This novel suggests that this be the natural result when men are allowed to operate outside a social system of checks and balances: power, especially power over other human beings, inevitably corrupts. “Heart of Darkness”, thus, at its most abstract level, is a narrative about the difficulty of understanding the world beyond the self, about the ability of one man to judge another.



Keywords: Imperialism, hypocrisy, exploitation, social system, enlightenment, inhumanity.


7. Irpan Apandi Batubara

The Effectiveness of Test in Bahasa Indonesia


A case study of Bilingual BookS



Irpan Apandi Batubara

Department of English Education, Faculty of Education

University of Muslim Nusantara

Medan, Indonesia




The use of bilingual books in various subjects has been implemented for years especially in the international standard schools in Indonesia. Since the books used are bilingual, the language medium of the test is in English and Bahasa Indonesia. This research is to evaluate which test is more effective when it is given in the two languages. Item analysis was used in analyzing the data; whereas Facility Value (F.V.) and Index of Discrimination (I.D.) were used as the parameters in this research. It was found that five items out of twenty had the same I.D. value of tests in both languages. In the interpretation of Facility Value, it was found that only five items of the questions in English were similar to those questions in Bahasa Indonesia. Five of them were acceptable in both languages as indicated from the students’ scores. However, the result of this research indicates that most students got low scores in answering questions in English compared to those who attempted questions in Bahasa Indonesia.


Keywords:    Bilingual, item analysis, facility value, index of discrimination.




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